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Brain Injury and Concussion Causes

Brain Injury Information

DISCLAIMER: This information is designed for educational purposes only and the information provided through this site should not be used for diagnosing or treating a brain injury or any other medical disorders. It is not a substitute for professional care. If you have or suspect you may have a brain injury or other medical issue, you should consult your health care provider.

For most up-to-date information, click link below:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

A Traumatic brain injury can be classified as mild or moderate/severe. Even if a TBI is classified as “mild”, the effect on the family and the injured person can be devastating.


Despite being the most common type of traumatic brain injury, a 2015 Harris Poll reports that nearly 90 percent of Americans cannot correctly define a concussion, although a large majority of Americans feel they have at least some knowledge about the subject.

By definition, a concussion is a traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or by a hit to the body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. This sudden movement can cause the brain to bounce around or twist in the skull, stretching and damaging brain cells and creating chemical changes in the brain.

  • Both a closed or open head injury can cause a concussion.
  • A person may or may not experience a brief loss of consciousness, when sustaining a concussion.  If consciousness remains intact, the individual may simply feel dazed and/or confused, yet still have a concussion.
  • A concussion can cause diffuse axonal type of brain injury, resulting in temporary or permanent damage.
  • A concussion may be diagnosed by exclusion, due to the fact that it may or may not show up on diagnostic imaging.
  • Possible symptoms of a concussion/mild TBI:
    • Headache
    • Fatigue
    • Sleep Disturbances
    • Irritability
    • Sensitivity to noise or light
    • Balance problems
    • Decreased concentration and attention span
    • Decreased speed of thinking
    • Memory problems
    • Nausea
    • Depression
    • Anxiety
    • Emotional mood swings

Children with a concussion can have the same symptoms as adults, but it is often harder for them to share how they feel. It is important to remember that it may take up to a few months to a few years for a concussion to heal.

However, when an individual sustains a concussion and their symptoms do not resolve after 3-6 months, they may then be diagnosed with Post-Concussion Syndrome.  Post-Concussion Syndrome is a complex disorder with various symptoms from headaches, dizziness, and sleep issues-to psychological (i.e. depression, anxiety, irritability) and cognitive problems (i.e memory and concentration issues); these symptoms can range from transient, mild symptoms to ongoing disabling problems.